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Government Of Assam Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Directorate of Dairy Development

Farmers’/ Entrepreneurs’ Corner

Start a Dairy Farm


  • It is a profitable business
  • It increases the income when combined with other agricultural activities
  • It increases scope for organic farming


  1. Analyse your resources including suitability of land, fund, human resource, availability of veterinary services, market etc
  2. Get training from Dairy Development or other reliable agencies
  3. Prepare a detailed project report to apply for a fund
  4. Approach the banks
  5. Prepare land and housing and simultaneously scout for animals
  6. Procure animals and required farm equipments
  7. Start milk production and marketing

Sources of getting finance:

  1. Commercial Banks
  2. Funds from government departments like Dairy Development, AH & Vety, DRDA, government projects etc.
  3. Cooperative societies

Breeds of cattle:


  1. India possesses 27 acknowledged indigenous breeds of cattle and 7 breeds of buffaloes.
  2. The Indian milch breeds are Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir.
  3. The milk production is on an average 1600 kg per lactation
  4. Exotic: Over 800 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide

Cross breed Cattle : 

The crossbreeds are having exotic inheritance from Jersey, Brown Swiss or Holstein Friesian or a combination of these different breeds. Jersey breed is known for the milk fat percent and Holstein for the high quantity of milk.

Sources of cattle: 

Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Indigenous Cows

  • The Indian milch breeds are Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir
  • The milk production is on an average 1600 kg per lactation


  • Originates from Montgomery district of Pakistan
  • More population of these breeds are found in Punjab, Haryana, U.P, Delhi, Bihar and M.P.
  • Milk yield ranges from (1350 kg to 2100 kg).
  • Age at first calving (32-36 months )

Red Sindhi

  • Belongs to Kohistan, Sindh province in Pakistan.
  • It is one of the most distinctive cattle breeds of India.
  • Mainly available in Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa
  • Milk yield varies from (1700 kg -3400 kg per lactation).


  • Mainly found in Gir forest areas of South Kathiawar.
  • Milk yield varies from (900 -1600 kg in lactation)

Exotic Breeds of Dairy Cow


  • Developed from the island of jersey, as France.
  • The Jerseys coat colour varies from a very light gray to a very dark fawn or a shade that is almost black.
  • Age at first calving : 26-30 months.
  • Milk yield – 5000-8000 kg.
  • Jersey yield 20 litres/day whereas, crossbred jersey cow gives 8-10 litres/day.
  • Well developed to the climatic condition of India especially hot and humid areas

Holstein Friesian

  • This breed is originated in Holland.
  • Holsteins are large capacious animals with colour patterns of black and white or red and white.
  • Milk yield - 7200-9000 kg the best diary breed among exotic cattle regarding milk yield.
  • On an average it gives 25 liter of milk per day, whereas a cross breed H.F. cow gives 10 - 15 liter per day.
  • It can perform well in coastal and delta areas.

Cross-breed cattle

The crossbreeds are having exotic inheritance from Jersey, Brown Swiss or Holstein Friesian or a combination of these different breeds. Jersey breed is known for the milk fat percent and Holstein for the high quantity of milk.

Cattle farm management

An efficient management of cattle will be incomplete without a well planned and adequate housing of cattle. Improper planning of animal housing leads to additional labour charges. The housing should have proper sanitation, durability, arrangements for the production of clean milk under convenient and economic conditions.

Cattle disease prevention and health management:

Cattle are susceptible to a wide variety of infectious diseases.Susceptibility has increased with the introduction of exotic germplasm and climate changes.The important infectious diseases of the cattle and its control are:

  • Foot and mouth disease : It is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease of all cloven footed domesticated and wild animals. The infection imposes a high spread during the cooler season when the air remains in damp condition. Vaccination is the only means to control the disease.
FMD6-8 Weeks10 ml s/c6,9 or 12 monthsAnnualPreferably November, December

Black Quarter : Black Quarter is one of the deadly bacterial diseases of cattle. The disease spreads rapidly after heavy rainfall by contamination of soil with spores of the organism. Areas where previous death occurs from clostridium infection, have a higher incidence or risk of disease because of increased environmental contamination. Treatment of the disease with specific antibiotic is useful if the diagnosis of the disease can be made at the early stage.The disease can be controlled by regular vaccination.

Polyvalent B.Q. VaccineAll age5 ml s/c6 monthsAnnualBefore onset of monsoon, all season in endemic areas

Haemorrhagic septicaemia : Haemorrhagic septicaemia, as the name implies is a poisoning of the blood accompanied by internal haemorrhages, is an acute septicaemic disease caused by a bacterium, Pasteurella multocida. The incidence of H.S. is throughout the year. The outbreak is not only in the period of high humidity or monsoon but also in winter season Although antibiotics are available for the treatment, there may not be any time for treament in most cases.The disease may be controlled by regular vaccination.

H.S. adjuvant vaccineAll ages3ml i/m6 monthsAnnualPreferably May, June

Brucellosis: Brucellosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases and causes great economic losses due to loss of milk production, abortion at late pregnancy and high rate of infertility in females and varying degree of sterility in males. There is no seasonal variation for occurrence of the disease. Regular screening of serum samples for detection of the disease is required. Incidence of brucellosis can be reduced by elimination of infected bull, isolation and treatment of positive reactors and calfhood vaccination.Treatment for brucellosis in animals is neither advisable nor practicable.

Control and Prevention

  • Animal brucellosis is best prevented by careful herd management and hygiene.
  • Vaccination is useful for prevention and control of infection.
  • B. abortus strains 19 and RB 51 are recommended for prevention of bovine brucellosis.
  • B. melitensis Rev 1 is recommended for prevention of B. melitensis infection in sheep and goats
  • Control and prevention schemes require effective collaboration between all sections of the community.
  • Education and information programmes are essential to ensure cooperation at all levels in the community.
  • Effective preventive measures and control of animal movements are essential.

Clean milk production:

Milk containing dirt, dust, foreign materials high bacterial count and with off, flavour is called contaminated milk. production of cleaan milk can be obtained by the following ways:

  • Milking barns provided with good ventilation and neat flooring.
  • Dry feeds or forage should be fed after milking.
  • Dirty hands and clothing of the milker may cause spread of bacterial diseases to the consumer through milk. Persons suffering from diseases like T.B, Typhoid fever, diphthiria may not be employed for milking.
  • Clean sanitized, smooth copper free and dry utensils may be used for handling milk
  • Detergents increase the 'wetting' potential over the surfaces to be cleaned, displace milk deposits, dissolve milk protein, emulsify the fat and aid the removal of dirt. Detergent effectiveness is usually increased with increasing water temperature, and by using the correct concentration and time of application.An inexpensive mixture of detergents can be made to give a concentration in solution of 0.25% sodium carbonate (washing soda) and 0.05% polyphosphate (Calgon). Disinfectants are required to destroy the bacteria remaining and subsequently multiplying on the cleaned surfaces.
  • Milking Premises: The milking premises should have a dairy or suitable place equipped with a piped hot and cold water supply, a wash trough, brushes, a work surface, storage racks and cupboards and, if necessary, a vacuum pipeline connection. In addition, it is advisable to have a dairy thermometer (0°C - 100°C), rubber gloves and goggles for use when handling chemicals.

Daily Routines : Coolers, either the corrugated surface or the turbine in-can, can best be cleaned and disinfected manually and stored in the dairy to drain. Refrigerated bulk milk tanks can be cleaned either manually using cold or warm detergent/disinfectant solutions, or for the larger tanks, by automatic, programmed equipment. In either case, a cold water chlorinated (50 ppm) rinse proceeds and follows the washing solution. Foremilk cups can be a potent source of bacterial contamination and need to be cleaned and disinfected after each milking. They should then be stored in the dairy to drain. It is important with any method of cleaning that the equipment is drained as soon as possible after washing for storage between milking. Bacteria will not multiply in dry conditions but water lodged in milking equipment will, in suitable temperatures, provide conditions for massive bacterial multiplication. Equipment with poor milk contact surfaces, crevices and large number of joints, remaining wet between milking in ambient temperatures above 20°C, should receive a disinfectant rinse (50 ppm available chlorine) before milking begins.

Need for formation of dairy cooperative societies:

  • Responsibile for the development of needy, especially under privileged. 
  • Engaged in economic activities like disbursement of credit, distribution of agricultural inputs (seeds, fertilizers, and agrochemicals), etc
  • Inherent advantages in tackling the problems of poverty alleviation, food security and employment generation.
  • Immense potential to deliver goods and services in areas where both the public and private sector have failed. 

Farm records/documentation and accounts keeping:

Composition and chemical testing of milk._For Assam Officers_Nov 2012.pptx1.28 MBswf-image
Assamese Handout..pdf1.44 MBswf-image
Assamese Manuals-.pdf3.04 MBswf-image